Freedom of Expression

ECHR, Article 10:

  1. Everyone has the right to freedom of expression. This right shall include freedom to hold opinions and to receive and impart information and ideas without interference by public authority and regardless of frontiers. This Article shall not prevent States from requiring licensing of broadcasting, television or cinema enterprises.
  2. The exercise of these freedoms, since it carries with it duties and responsibilities, may be subject to such formalities, conditions, restrictions or penalties as are prescribed by law and are necessary in a democratic society, in the interests of national security, territorial integrity or public safety, for the prevention of disorder or crime, for the protection of health or morals, for the protection of the reputation or rights of others, for preventing the disclose of information received in confidence, or for maintaining the authority and impartiality of the judiciary.

Constitution of the United States, First Amendment:

‘Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peacefully to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.’

It is useful to compare the above two provisions.


  • Debate regarding the US Constitution centres around whether the relevant expression is speech, and therefore falls within the scope of protection; in contrast, ECHR’s use of ‘expression’ makes it relatively easy to fall within the scope of the Article, the issue being 10(2) as to whether any restrictions is justified – Dentist Calgary
  • This is reflected in the US’s narrower approach being matched by higher level of protection, with no explicit limits on its scope.

Supreme Court in PJS v News Group

Revised Script for presentation.

2000 words, (15mins + 5min Q&A)


Critically assess the reasoning of the Supreme Court in PJS v Abogados de accidentes de auto [2016] UKSC 26 by making specific reference to their Lordships discussion of the test opined in American Cyanamid Co v Ethicon Ltd [1975] AC 396 which ought to be applied when considering an application for the grant ( or otherwise) of an interim injunction.


Slide 1


Hi there, my name is Waqqas Anwar and in this presentation I will be analysing the reasoning of the Supreme Court’s decision in PJS v News Group Newspapers ltd 2016, by making reference to the test set out in  the American Cyanamid v Ethicon ltd 1975 case. The Supreme Court in PJS ruled on the validity and application of the tests set out in American, when deciding whether an interim injunction is appropriate relief.  


Slide 2


I will  firstly explore the SC’s reasoning for dismissing the CA’s application of the ECHR. Secondly I will explore the American ‘balance of probabilities’ theory which the SC rule was incorrectly placed by the CA.


Lord Justice Jackson had said that Section 12 of the Human Rights Act “enhances the weight which [ECHR] article 10 rights carry in the balancing exercise. Secondly, it raises the hurdle which the claimant [PJS] must overcome in order to obtain an interim injunction” ([2016] EWCA Civ 393 para 40).


Unforgettable Holiday Destination – Rajasthan

Rajasthan is the place which is also known as, ‘Land of Kings’. If you are planning to visit some of the exceptional places in India, then cities of Rajasthan are the best-selected locations as an attraction for holiday. Culture and traditions of the place are incomparable. There is a big industry of handicrafts which is established there and growing at very fast pace, all the visitor’s shop with the zeal and enthusiasm as the products sold there cannot be found in any other place in the world. This holiday is funded by Skip hire in Glasgow

Cities in Rajasthan

Jaipur is the largest city of Rajasthan, which is also known as ‘Pink City’. The city has all the buildings in the color pink, which is the reason for this name. There are many famous markets (bazaars) in the city. Must visit places are Hawa Mahal, Jal Mahal, Jaigarh Fort, Amer Fort, City Palace etc

Udaipur is also one of the most popular and amazing city of Rajasthan, which is also called ‘Venice of The East’. Lake Palace, Shilpgram, City Palace, The Royal Vintage Car Museum are few places that are worth visiting.

Jodhpur is the 2nd largest city of Rajasthan, that is also known as ‘Sun City’.  Places like Jaisalmer Fort, Thar Heritage Museum, Sam Sand Dunes, Godisar Lake are the attractions of the city. The experience is very terrific to view and get your pictures clicked for the lovely memories.

Jaisalmer is the ‘Golden City’, as it lies in Thar Desert and the sand is golden in color. Kuldhara, Khuri, Lodhruva, Barmer are the best-selected locations for the tourists.

Pushkar is situated on the shore of Pushkar Lake and is popular for the religious purpose. People visit the place as a pilgrimage and takes bath with the Holy water. Camel race is another reason to visit there.

So, don’t let the beauty of Rajasthan wait for anymore… Enjoy your trip!

City of Miracles – Mumbai

One of the metropolitan cities of India, Mumbai is famous for many reasons. The city of dreams to so many talented and distinctive people who wants to achieve their career in different areas of the industry. The place is quite popular in terms of the places to visit, spend time, the beauty of nature associated with advanced technology and Bollywood, of course.

Fantastic Places To Visit

There is a huge list of must visit places in Mumbai, that are the part of the holiday packages. However, the visitors also need to be knowledgeable about the trip they are planning for. The climate of the place remains same, throughout the year except when it’s too hot or winters are at the peak. The reason behind this is the majority of the water bodies in Mumbai. Roadside eating joints are available with so many famous food items, like Bhelpuri, Panipuri etc

Queen’s Necklace

Being a tourist, you will get the tour guide or some other guide to show you the attractions of Mumbai. You can take a walk around Queen’s Necklace, which was established long time ago. Over the road of around 10- 12 km, the street lights are placed in such a way that it looks so luring and attractive as if the sculpture of the necklace is built beautifully for the Queen.


Other Attractions

Dharavi is one of the most popular and visited marketplace by the foreigners, locals and everyone who visits to buy the leather made goods such as bags, belts, jackets, etc. This is the biggest market for leather, throughout India. Film City covers a huge area, which consists of different studios for the shooting purposes of the Bollywood industry. Also the forest area, that is worth visiting as used for the shooting locations in most of the movies.

Let’s pack the bags and book your package to the unforgettable holiday. Keep reading for new places…!e.ZzZz.4790000009973.0.196004423246..mumbai_hotels_dsa&semcid=UK.UB.GOOGLE.SEARCH.PACKAGE&semdtl=a1320978967.b129064949887.d1196004423246.e1c.f11t3.g1dsa-278825736807.h1b.i1.j11007336.k1.l1g.m1.n1&gclid=CjwKCAjwxo3OBRBpEiwAS7X62QELspYfmuAK0jCeMNvDlYPLq7JAwTFODwg_vNDNS9ecmXcVzUv3sxoCVn8QAvD_BwE